Notice (Still) Means Notice: Ontario Court of Appeal upholds dismissal of contractor’s claim for failure to provide notice of the claim to the owner as required by the contract

Hot off the presses is Technicore Underground Inc. v. Toronto (City) in which the Ontario Court of Appeal has upheld the lower Court’s decision to dismiss a contractor’s (Clearway) claim against the owner (City of Toronto) as a result of Clearway’s failure to give the City of Toronto notice of its claim within 30 days “…after completion of the work affected by the situation” as was required by the contract between the parties.

Clearway gave the City of Toronto notice for part of its claim within the 30 day period required by the contract but didn’t give notice of another, much larger, component of its desired claim until more than three years later and within the context of the litigation that was commenced following the initial notice was given.  The City of Toronto brought a motion for partial summary judgment to dismiss the portion of Clearway’s claim for which notice had not been given within the required 30 days.  The motions judge granted partial summary judgment and dismissed the bulk of Clearway’s claim (more than $2.1M) for failure to give notice as required by the contract.

On appeal, Clearway argued that:

  • the notice provision was merely procedural and required “failing which” (or my preferred, “or else…”) language to have the drastic effect of permitting the dismissal of the claim;
  • in the absence of prejudice to the City of Toronto arising from the failure to give notice, the failure to give notice should not be fatal;
  • the City of Toronto’s own failure to comply with a different provision of the contract should disentitle it from relying on the notice provision;
  • portions of the claims for which no/late notice was given were really just extensions of the parts of the claim for which notice was given; and
  • the City of Toronto waived its right to rely on the notice provision.

The Court of Appeal rejected all of Clearway’s arguments and dismissed the appeal.  In so doing, the Court relied heavily on the Supreme Court of Canada Decision in Corpex (1977) Inc. v. The Queen in right of Canada (and the BC and Ontario Decisions in Doyle Construction Co. v. Carling O’Keefe Breweries of Canada Ltd. and Bemar Construction (Ontario) Inc. v. Mississauga (City of)).  I’m not going to repeat or summarize the Court’s reasoning but, if you are so inclined, it is worth the 15-20 minute read.

For contractors and owners, the primary take-away from this Decision is the reminder of how critical it is to know what is in your contract, understand what is required in various situations, and if the contract requires that you do something – to do it!  The consequences of failing to follow the requirements of your contract are not always this dramatic (and sometimes there will be some fact or event that can relieve you from a failure to comply) but why take the chance?

For fellow lawyers, aside from the substantive utility and importance of this Decision, I think we can all take note of the increasingly obvious reality that one of the most effective, appropriate, and useful applications of the new Rule 20 regime for summary judgment motions is the early and inexpensive resolution of claims that can be determined on the basis of the interpretation of contractual provisions (and their application to uncontroversial facts).

Vidmate | Download Vidmate APK App For Free!

Vidmate: There are many video clip downloading and install software out there for your PC and Mac where you are able to download videos from several prominent video clip internet sites like Youtube, Dailymotion etc. However they are only offered for your computer systems. Vidmate Yet what about the mobile customer? Now the concern occurs is that how can they dowload videos from Youtube or any other websites directly to their phone. So below I am mosting likely to mention you about some application that enables you to download videos directly from YouTube or other sites to your phone.
Vidmate is an internet browser based application that allows you to download videos or audios straight from any media (Video clip or Audio) web sites like YouTube, SoundCloud etc to your phone in high quality. Vidmate Android Vidmate is presently the most effective application offered in market to download videos in any style or resolution you want. The application is totally free of cost which you can easily download from market or from their official website. In addition the size of Vidmate is really reduced i.e just 3-5 megabytes, this means it will certainly not take much of your app/device storage. twitter It has an easy UI that any person could comprehend at first sight.

The best ways to use vidmate?

Vidmate is very simple to use and also has a really straightforward UI. Using vid mate resembles consuming pizza:p.
So here is how you can use vidmate, for the example I am using YouTube as my source.

Step 1: Dowload Vidmate.

Step 2: Mount Vid companion.

Step 3: Open up the Video companion Application on your phone, you will certainly see an internet browser like user interface like Opera Mini.

Step 4: In the address bar kind the video/audio link you intend to download. For example: https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=40H9mpkkaz0.

Why video friend is better compared to other youtube downloader?

Vidmate is surely far better compared to any other youtube downloader offered out there. It offers an extremely straightforward UI that any person could recognize and also utilize. Vid friend apk supplies a lot of functions to its users.Users could download their favorite Videos and films absolutely free of cost from different system such as YouTube, Facebook, Soundcloud as well as many more.

Two recent Court Decisions affirming that the Ontario New Home Warranty Plan is for the protection of new home buyers

The courts in Ontario have held, on a number of occasions, that the Ontario New Home Warranties Plan Act (“ONHWPA”) is legislation established to protect and provide additional remedies to buyers of new homes.  These Decisions have normally arisen in the context of disputes between homeowners on one side and their builder and Tarion on the other.  Two interesting Decisions recently came down from the Ontario Court of Appeal that have, albeit in a completely different context, affirmed that the ONHWPA is remedial, consumer protection legislation. The first of these Decisions is Tarion Warranty Corporation v. Boros, 2011 ONCA 374 (CanLII) (leave to appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada refused) and the second is Tarion Warranty Corporation v. Kozy, 2011 ONCA 795 (CanLII).  In both cases, the issue before the Court of Appeal was whether the homebuilders were “builders” under the ONHWPA such that they were caught by the registration (and other) requirements of the legislation.

From a residential builder’s perspective, these cases are primarily of significance because there is now clear and strong authority that the ONHWPA can’t be circumvented or avoided by simply leaving a small portion of construction out of the contract for the buyer to complete.

From a homeowner’s perspective, there are two noteworthy things about these cases:

  1. I believe that this is the first time the Ontario Court of Appeal has so clearly and unequivocally affirmed that the ONHWPA is remedial consumer protection legislation and that it is to be interpreted broadly and liberally as such; and
  2. Under the circumstances of these cases, it appears to have been Tarion, not new homeowners, arguing for this purposive, broad, and liberal interpretation of the ONHWPA.

It will be very interesting to see what the courts do with this purposive, broad, and liberal interpretation of the ONHWPA (and Tarion’s corresponding purpose and obligations) when a good case comes along within which to test and question how Tarion assesses and handles homeowners’ claims regarding deficiencies and “unauthorized substitutions”.  Having read many, many License Appeal Tribunal and court Decisions, I’ve yet to see one that gives a comprehensive and satisfactory treatment on this important aspect of the warranty.

Tarion providing protection to Ontario’s new homebuyers?

I watched an interesting little piece on CTV’s W5 last night that dealt with several Ontario homeowners’ difficulties surrounding the heating systems installed in their new homes and their frustration in dealing with Tarion.  Click here for a link to the online article on the same piece.

Tarion provides and administers Ontario’s mandatory new home warranty program under the Ontario New Home Warranties Plan Act (“ONHWPA”) and its regulations.   Based on the W5 story and others I’ve seen, Tarion still seems to be really struggling with the concept that the ONHWPA is consumer protection legislation and that, as such, protecting homeowners is Tarion’s primary (if not sole) mandate.  There have been at least a couple of cases decided by the Ontario Courts where the Court has expressly stated that the ONHWPA is consumer protection legislation and yet the piece on W5 is just the most recent of many, many stories and articles in the media telling a very similar story.  The message – even when delivered by the Courts – just doesn’t seem to be getting through.

I’m skeptical by nature and, a few years ago, I might have chalked these media stories about problems with Tarion up to whiny homeowners and/or overzealous reporters.  However, as the purchaser of two (consecutive) new homes in the last four years, I’ve had the personal displeasure of tangling with Tarion not once, but twice.  I won’t bore you with the details but I will tell you that, with both houses, I had several substantial and legitimate deficiencies that Tarion deemed “Not Warranted”.  If you’ve ever received a Warranty Assessment Report from Tarion, you will be entirely too familiar with these two words.  I’ve been litigating construction deficiency claims for more than a decade and I have a pretty good sense for what should be covered by a warranty and what probably isn’t.  Tarion knew I was a construction lawyer and I was still treated by Tarion as though I had no idea what I was talking about and would just placidly accept its patently wrong decisions.  It was a real eye-opener and I remember feeling extremely sympathetic to folks that are trying in vain to get help from Tarion and don’t have the skills or resources to take Tarion to task when it determines some of their very legitimate complaints to be “Not Warranted”.

Seeing this W5 story has renewed my interest in trying to help to educate homeowners and I will, in the near future, post some information here that Ontario homeowners dealing with Tarion might find helpful.

Top 10 (or 11) Suggestions for Homeowners Considering a Renovation or Residential Construction Project

For most people, long gone are the days where a house is purchased in early adulthood and is lived in, virtually unchanged, for 20, 30, even 40, years.  We are, more and more, a society and culture that encourages “upgrading” and “improvement”.  Many of us will, at some point, hire a contractor to carry out some kind of construction project – whether for a small bathroom renovation all the way up to a large six figure renovation.

There are a lot of fantastic contractors and builders out there that do excellent work and this article is, in no way, a slag on contractors generally.  Unfortunately, when trying to tell the good from the bad, one thing you can count on is that they will all – good ones and bad ones – tell you how skilled, professional, and “detail” and “quality” oriented they are.  However, another thing you can count on is that, when it’s your home and hard earned money is at risk, a two month delay, a 30% or 40% budget overrun, or an un-level floor/poor paint job/etc. (you get the idea), will test your anger management limits.  If the contractor then refuses to acknowledge the problem and stops communicating with you, you’ll quickly see those limits as little dots in your rear-view mirror.

Seasoned and experienced owners or developers undertaking large construction projects or working in new construction usually take steps to get the proper “legalities” taken care of – they negotiate contracts that are either standard form or are drafted by their lawyers, they hire consultants to oversee and review the work as it progresses, they make sure they are complying (more or less) with the Construction Lien Act, and so on. However, on smaller projects and renovations, and for less experienced homeowners, these safeguards and up-front precautions are far too often overlooked and it amazes me how little legal protection and planning many people seek even when there are tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars at stake.

Sometimes a project goes well and the homeowner gets what he or she bargained for without any conflict. These are the happy stories. However, too often, homeowners are getting into costly disputes with their contractors and either get a poor finished product or spend a small fortune in legal fees fighting for what they feel they are entitled to.  Fortunately, while construction can be a risky game for the uninformed and uninitiated, there are some things that homeowners can do to reduce the chances of things going sideways and improve their position if they do.

If you are a homeowner and are considering embarking on a renovation or construction project, the following are a few things you should think about before you sign on the so-called “dotted line”:

  1. Budget some amount of money for legal advice and assistance when you are in the early stages of planning your project.  The amount of your budget will probably depend on the overall cost and nature of the project.  You should consider this as part of the actual construction budget. If things go well (the happy story) and some of this money doesn’t get used,  great!  However, if things begin to capsize (the unhappy story), you’ll be glad to have the funds available to deal with the problem.
  2. Research the contractor(s) you are considering using.  The internet is a great resource for this (Google, chat rooms, the Better Business Bureau, etc) and your lawyer can also carry out searches to investigate whether there has been past litigation involving the contractor. Ask the contractor for two or three references for previous clients and call them (before agreeing to anything) – if people were unhappy, they’ll be eager to tell you about it.  If the contractor can’t (or won’t) give you a reference, run, don’t walk.
  3. Make sure that you have a well drafted contract in place that clearly sets out each party’s rights and obligations. There are many different project delivery methods available (fixed price, cost plus, project management, and so on), each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Regardless of which delivery method you choose, it should be clear as to who does what and when and for how much, and what the consequences will be if things that have been agreed upon do not happen.  Note: “well drafted” does not necessarily mean “long” or “complicated”.  Depending on the type and size of the project, an adequate contract might only be a page or two long.
  4. Consider having a schedule to the contract (unless it is set out right in the body of the contract) that clearly expresses exactly what is (and is not) included in the price. Too frequently, disputes arise because the homeowner thinks she is getting, for example, premium quality paint in an eggshell finish and the contractor plans on using standard builders’ grade flat paint.  If the contract is silent on this, the contractor is going to charge the homeowner more to use the paint that she thought was included.  A contract that sets these sorts of things out in detail can avoid this very, very common problem.
  5. Once you have that well drafted contract in place, follow it!  If a dispute arises, it is more difficult to earn the sympathy of the court if the other party is not the only one that has not abided by the agreed terms.  More than one lawsuit has been lost because both parties completely disregarded the terms of their contract.
  6. Get some advice on your rights and obligations under the Construction Lien Act. In many cases, knowing (and following) what the Construction Lien Act says about what you have to do (i.e. retaining a proper holdback for the appropriate amount of time and performing some due diligence searches before releasing the money) can save you from significant liability at the end of the project if workers, suppliers, or trades are not paid (whether directly by you or by your contractor).  This legislation is there, in part, to protect owners.
  7. If the size of the project warrants it, either work some terms into your contract(s) for third party reviews of the work and spend a bit of money on a consultant (i.e. an architect or engineer) to do periodic reviews to point out any deviations from the specifications, design, or the Building Code, or hire someone to do this outside the contract but for your own benefit and protection.  If a dispute arises, this third party can provide valuable evidence. If no dispute arises, the third party reviews can provide you with almost as valuable peace of mind
  8. Make sure that either you or the contractor is taking care of whatever permits are required click this site. building permits add to the cost and “red tape” of the project but for many projects they are required and, for the most part, they are there to protect you. That said, do not assume that the building permit or inspection process will act as a general quality control for the work being done.  Inspectors are generally only inspecting for general compliance with the Building Code’s minimum standards – not to ensure that everything is being done properly or in accordance with the contract. There’s a big difference.
  9. Consider whether you want a dispute resolution clause in your contract. Sometimes there is no such clause, sometimes there is a mandatory mediation or arbitration clause, and sometimes there is a clause making mediation or arbitration optional. I am generally not a fan of mandatory arbitration clauses for smaller projects primarily because of the potential cost involved, but there are times where it might be appropriate. This is something to raise and discuss with your lawyer.
  10. If you have a lawyer retained from the outset of the project, he or she will be familiar with the project and contract and, in the event that a dispute arises, will be able to jump right in without nearly as much briefing to assist in resolving things. Let your lawyer know if you sense that a problem might be on the horizon (i.e. if your contractor seems to be falling behind, the materials on site don’t match what you requested, etc). Sometimes an early letter can help keep things on the rails when they might otherwise go off (potentially saving you a lot of money if a full-scale dispute can be averted).
  11. Most construction litigation is won and lost on the “paper trail”.  Keep a very accurate and complete project file where you keep everything to do with the project (i.e. contracts, drawings, quotes, documents supporting agreed changes to the scope of work, etc). Where things are discussed orally on site or in meetings, confirm what was discussed or agreed in writing (the speed and ease of e-mail makes this a no brainer). Keeping a comprehensive project file will:
    • keep you better organized in dealing with the contractor(s) and other involved parties throughout the project (never a bad thing);
    • only take a little more time than not doing it; and
    • if a dispute arises during the course of the project and arbitration or litigation is required, possibly mean the difference between winning or losing the dispute and will invariably save you money in legal fees because your lawyer will have better evidence to work with.

While I strongly believe that the above suggestions can go a long way toward reducing problems and putting you in a better position if problems arise, they will not guarantee you 100% protection.  Even where sophisticated owners and contractors make heroic efforts to protect themselves and negotiate detailed contracts believed by everyone to be clear and  bullet-proof, long and costly litigation can still occur.

Taking the time to follow the above suggestions and, perhaps, investing couple of thousand dollars for legal advice and services at the outset of a smaller project may be a hard pill to swallow for the eternal optimist who can’t imagine that a serious dispute could arise on his or her project (“My contractor seems like a really nice guy. I trust him.”), but most clients that I’ve represented over the years, after things went wrong and where they didn’t exercise this sort of up front effort and diligence, would almost certainly say that, with the benefit of hindsight, they would have done things differently.